reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee. Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei fabricationpollination.com für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten.
Creek-KriegHistoric Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei fabricationpollination.com  ein Angehöriger des gleichnamigen Indianervolks. Synonyme: [1, 2] Muskogee, Creek-Indianer. Beispiele:  „Er war aus England. Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache.
Creek Indianer creek-indians VideoThe Muscogee (Creek) Peoples \u0026 Confederation: History, Culture \u0026 The Muscogee Trail Of Tears Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache. für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee. The Creek Indians, also known as the Muscogee, lived in the southeast region of the United States, long before explorers and colonists arrived in the area. In the area that is today Georgia and. The Creek Indian tribe are people of the Southeast Native American cultural groups. The geographic elements of the area where they lived on managed the way of life in their home is called Homes of the Creek Indians and society of these Creek Indian people. Jul 14, - Explore Sweet Vampire's board "Creek Indians", followed by people on Pinterest. See more ideas about creek indian, creek nation, native american heritage pins. They were part of a union that comprised a few other tribes Creek Indianer also lived in the area. Boston: Beacon Press, In the Hr-Online.De Sport ofMcGillivray and 29 other Muscogee chiefs signed the Treaty of New Yorkon behalf of the 'Upper, Middle and Lower Creek and Gummibär Orakel composing the Creek nation of Indians,' ceding a large portion of their lands to the federal government and promising to return fugitive slaves, in return for federal recognition of Muscogee sovereignty and Quizduell Zeit to evict white settlers. InSpanish and Online Spider officials established a neutral zone from the Altamaha to the St. New York: Cambridge University Press,
In —14, when the Creek War with the United States took place, some towns fought with the white colonizers and some the Red Sticks against them.
Upon defeat, the Creeks ceded 23,, acres of land half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia ; they were forcibly removed to Indian Territory now Oklahoma in the s.
For three-quarters of a century each tribe had a land allotment and a quasi-autonomous government modelled on that of the United States.
In preparation for Oklahoma statehood , some of this land was allotted to individual Indians; the rest was made available to white homesteaders, held in trust by the federal government, or allotted to freed slaves.
Tribal governments were effectively dissolved in but have continued to exist on a limited basis. Creek descendants numbered more than 76, in the early 21st century.
Creek Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka; these districts function like counties.
Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma P. Box Okmulgee, Oklahoma Phone: Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico , gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
Book Notes on the Creek Indians , by J. Hewitt, edited by John R. Anthropological Papers, No. Bulletin , BAE. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co. FHL Book US Government Printing Office. The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies.
The area of their tribal countries appears on the guide. The topography of the locale in which they lived managed the way of life and society of the Creek tribe.
The Creek tribe lived in various styles of safe houses throughout the years. The Mississippian society individuals fabricated earthwork hills in their towns with grass houses.
The history of early Georgia is largely the history of the Creek Indians. For most of Georgia's colonial period, Creeks outnumbered both European colonists and enslaved Africans and occupied more land than these newcomers.
Not until the s did the Creeks become a minority population in Georgia. They ceded the balance of their lands to the new state in the s. The Creek Nation is a relatively young political entity.
When Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, no such nation existed. About A. The Spanish incursions into the Southeast in the sixteenth century devastated these peoples.
European diseases such as smallpox may have killed 90 percent or more of the native population. But by the end of the s Southeastern Indians began to recover.
They built a complex political alliance, which united native peoples from the Ocmulgee River west to the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers in Alabama.
Although they spoke a variety of languages, including Muskogee, Alabama, and Hitchiti, the Indians were united in their wish to remain at peace with one another.
By English newcomers from South Carolina were calling these allied peoples "Creeks. They numbered about 10, at this time. When General James Oglethorpe and his Georgia colonists arrived in , Creek-English relations were already well established.
Oglethorpe with Creek Indians. By the s tens of thousands of skins were leaving the port of Charleston, South Carolina, each year, bound for English factories, where they were cut into breeches, stretched into book covers, and sewn into gloves.
Savannah , Georgia, later joined Charleston as a leading port, and in the s it may have exported more than 60, skins each year. In Creek towns the profits from the trade included cloth, kettles, guns, and rum.
These items became integral parts of the culture, easing the labor tasks of Creeks. However, they also created conflict by enriching some, but not all, Indians.
The trade William McIntosh. Two yearly crops of early corn were eaten as they ripened, and a harvest of late corn was dried and stored for winter use as hominy.
Each family compound contained a large wooden mortar and pestle used to process corn into meal or grits after it had been hulled by cooking with lye or mixing with ashes.
The cornmeal was then cooked with lye and water, and the gruel was left to sour for two or three days. The resulting soup was called sofkey, and it was such a basic part of the diet that each household kept a bowlful at the door so visitors could partake as they entered.
Corn was used in other ways as well. Burned shells of the field pea were mixed with cornmeal to make blue dumplings. Apuske, a drink, was made by sweetening a mixture of parched cornmeal and water.
Sweet potatoes, pumpkins, peaches, and apples were eaten fresh or dried for storage. The Creeks also commonly ate vegetable stews, either with or without meat.
After relocation to Oklahoma, salt was available from a natural creek-side deposit. Hickory nuts were used both as a cooking ingredient and as a source of oil.
Bear fat was prized as a seasoning. Creek diets included deer, wild hog, turkey, and smaller game such as opossum and squirrel. Beef, venison, and bison meat could be smoked for storage or cut into strips and dried.
Meat and fish might be cooked by boiling or roasting. They employed several methods for catching fish, including nets, traps, and spears.
During the summer, the population of an entire town gathered at a favorable spot where a stream could be dammed or fenced to trap fish.
Appropriate roots were prepared and thrown into the water to drug the fish; as they floated to the surface, the men showed their marksmanship by shooting them with bows and arrows.
The women then cooked sofkey and fried the fish for a feast. Traditional clothing for men consisted of a breech-cloth, deerskin leggings, a shirt, and, in winter, moccasins.
Women wore shawls and deerskin skirts. Children generally went unclothed until puberty. During the winter, additional warmth was provided by bear skins and buffalo hides.
Both men and women wore their hair long. The men plucked their facial hair and also removed hair around their heads, leaving a long central lock that they braided with decorative feathers, shells, and strings.
Sometimes they made turbans from strips of deerskin or cloth. The women, whose hair might reach to their calves, wound it about their heads, fastening it with silver jewelry and adorning it with colorful streamers.
The men used extensive tattooing to decorate their trunks, arms, and legs. The indigo designs included natural objects, animals, abstract scroll-work, and even hunting and battle scenes.
Both men and women employed body paint and wore earrings and other jewelry. Trade with Europeans brought colorful woven fabrics to the Creek people.
They quickly incorporated these into their customary fashions, and began to decorate clothing and moccasins with trade beads.
The women liked to wear clothing fashioned from calico and other printed cloth, and silk ribbons became popular hair ornaments.
Creek women also bought the scrap threads of scarlet cloth that traders cleaned out of the bottoms of their packs; they boiled them to remove the dye, which they then added to berry juice and used to color other cloth.
The major annual holiday was the Green Corn Festival, which celebrated the beginning of the corn harvest in late July or early August.
Depending on the size of the town, the festival lasted from four to eight days. It involved a number of traditions, including dancing and moral lectures given by town leaders.
Marion Wild Horse McGhee performs the fluff dance, attempting to pick up a feather with his teeth without his knees, hands or forehead touching the ground.
To prepare for the festival, the entire town was cleaned, and the square refurbished with fresh sand and new mats for its buildings. Women made new clothing for their families, as well as new pottery and other household furnishings.
The town piled old clothing and furnishings together with the collected rubbish and burned them, along with all remaining food supplies that had been stored from the previous year.
All fires in the town were extinguished, and a new fire was started in the town square by the ancient method of rubbing sticks together.
Each family carried some of this new fire home to relight their household fire. The festival was also called the busk, especially among whites.
The name derived from the Creek word boosketah, meaning a fast. The men cleansed themselves with ceremonial bathing and by fasting and drinking a strong emetic potion which they called "medicine.
As time passed, women were allowed to join in the festival dancing; by the late s they occasionally partook of the "medicine.
Inspired by the ripening of the new corn, the festival was a time of renewal and forgiveness. Drinking the "medicine" purged the body physically and purified it from sin.
A general amnesty was conferred for all offenses committed in the past year, with the exception of murder. If a guilty person was able to hide between the time a crime was committed and the time of the Green Corn Festival, he or she would escape punishment entirely.
The festival marked the beginning of the new year and as such became the official date for such events as marriages, divorces, and periods of mourning.
It was also the occasion for young men's initiation rites. According to traditional beliefs, illness was the result of an animal spirit or a conjurer placing some foreign substance in the victim's body.
An owala, or shaman, would affect a cure by concocting an appropriate medicine out of roots, herbs, and other natural substances.
While brewing the potion, he would sing appropriate songs and blow into the mixture through a tube. The afflicted person would take the medicine internally and also apply it externally.
After establishing contact with the Europeans, the Creeks were affected by periodic outbreaks of smallpox, measles, and other imported diseases; the number of fatalities went undocumented.
During removal to Indian Territory, emigrating Creeks were subjected to difficult traveling conditions including exposure to weather extremes.
Overcrowded conditions on boats during waterborne portions of the journey, coupled with dietary changes and unclean drinking water from the Mississippi River, left the travelers vulnerable to illness.
Maladies such as dysentery, diarrhea, and cholera contributed to the many casualties en route. Health problems did not end with arrival in Indian Territory.
Streams behaved differently in the West than they did in the East; unexpected flooding destroyed new homes and crops, while in dry spells the streams turned into breeding grounds for mosquitos, and many Creeks fell victim to malaria.
During western winters, periods of mild days alternated with sudden bouts of extremely cold weather; Creek shelters and clothing were inadequate for this climate, and many people perished from pneumonia.
During the first year in Indian Territory, 3, Creeks died of disease or starvation. Even in s, health care furnished through the Indian Health Service often has been inadequate.
The Muscogee Nation manages its own hospital to better serve its people. Creeks experience a relatively high incidence of diabetes, which may be related to the poor economic conditions they have endured in modern times; alcoholism may also play a role.
Most Creeks spoke dialects of the Muskogean language. Braund has asserted that "it was still the English who were forced to learn the melodious Muskogee tongue, for few Creeks expressed any willingness to adopt the harsh and strident tones of their new friends.
In , 72 percent of Creeks over the age of ten could speak English. By , 99 percent of Creek adults could speak English well; 15 percent of them still spoke their native language at home.
Another missionary published a Creek dictionary and grammar book in The language's vowels and their sounds are: "v" as the vowel sound in but , "a" as in sod , "e" as in tin , "o" as in toad , "u" as in put , and "i" as in hate.
Most consonants are pronounced as in English, except that "c" sounds like "ts" or "ch," while "r" sounds like "hl" made by blowing while pronouncing an "l".
Some of the basic words of the Creek language are Hes'ci "hihs-jay" —hello; henk'a "hihn gah" — yes; hek'us "hihg oos" —no; Mvto' "muh doh" — thank you.
Creek society was based on a clan system, with each person's identity determined by the clan of his or her mother.
Clan membership governed social interactions, ranging from whom members could joke with to whom they could marry marriage within one's clan was considered incest.
Each town included members from about six clans. The family home was actually a collection of several rectangular buildings constructed of a framework of wood poles, with walls of mud and straw plaster, and a roof of cyprus bark shingles.
These buildings were arranged in a smaller version of the town square, with a courtyard in the center. One building was used for cooking and eating, one for sleeping in winter sleeping and eating were done outdoors in warm weather , and one for storing food supplies.
Another building was provided for women's retreats, used during menstruation as well as for a four-month period at childbirth.
Each homesite included a small garden plot where the women of the family raised some vegetables and tobacco. The town maintained a large field of fertile land for farming, with a section reserved for each family.
The townspeople worked together on the entire field, and at harvest time each family gathered the produce from its section.
All were expected to contribute to a communal stockpile that would be used to feed visitors and needy families in the town.
Traditionally, Creeks buried the dead under the earthen floor of the home, though by the late s it was more common to bury them in the churchyard or in a family cemetery near the home.
A widower was expected to mourn his dead wife for four months, during which time he would not bathe, wash his clothes, or comb his hair.
The same mourning practices were required of a widow; she, however, was obligated to mourn for four years.